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Bankruptcy Basics: Chapter 7, Chapter 13

Chapter 7 & Chapter 13, Consumer Bankruptcy Basics
Bankruptcy Basics

Bankruptcy can help you become debt free, but it isn’t the right option for everyone. It’s important to understand that bankruptcy should be the final straw in your fight against debts. Have you tried debt relief or settlement first? This article on debt relief vs bankruptcy is worth a read if you haven’t. Bankruptcy might be suitable for you if you have no way to pay your debts, there’s little or no equity in your home, and it’s unlikely that your situation will improve. There isn’t a minimum amount of debt you need to be eligible for bankruptcy, so if your unsecured debts total more than the things of value you own, bankruptcy is an option for you.

Any view of bankruptcy basics starts with the two types of consumer bankruptcy: Chapter 7 and Chapter 13.

Chapter 7 cancels or “discharges” many types of debt. Most credit card, medical, and other unsecured debts are discharged, as are most court judgments and loans.

Many filers find all of their debts discharged.

Debts not discharged include student loans, court imposed fines and restitution, child support, alimony and recent back taxes.

This means that you may still be required to pay off any debt that you have in the areas specified. If you don’t, you could find yourself filing for bankruptcy. To avoid this devastating situation, you may want to look into ways in which you can handle or control any debts that you need repaying, such as looking into companies that can help with debt consolidation, and soon debt relief can be yours. It could be beneficial to your debt or bankruptcy, that you know what needs to be paid and what doesn’t.

Once you’re out of bankruptcy, you will need to start from square one again. Your credit score will be very negatively affected so it’ll be important to work towards improving it again, straight away. You can look for the best Credit Cards to Build Credit although it may be hard to get accepted by banks at first.

Two Bankruptcy Concepts: Liquidation & Reorganization

Chapter 7 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code is “liquidation”. Debtors with property not covered by exemptions will find a trustee administering or liquidating property to pay creditors. But in the end, most or all debt is discharged. Usually, Chapter 7 bankruptcy takes about four months. Many filers find most or all of their property exempt. They make it through the process unscathed. If you’re looking for advice on getting yourself out of bankruptcy, have a read through this article here as well as similar information on bankruptcy.

Chapter 13 is a reorganization. The automatic stay of bankruptcy gives immediate protection against creditors upon filing. Then, arrearages on secured loans and, depending on the case, a percentage of unsecured debts are paid in a chapter 13 plan over 3 to 5 years through monthly plan payments. Chapter 13 bankruptcy is for individuals only. Chapter 11 bankruptcy is for businesses and for individuals with very large debts. Chapter 12 provides reorganization for farmers and fishermen.


Credit Counseling

All bankruptcy filers must obtain credit counseling. A certificate of credit counseling must be filed with the bankruptcy petition. Agencies approved by the U.S. Trustee’s office provide counseling online, by toll free telephone number, or in person.

Means Test

Determining eligibility for the simpler Chapter 7 is done by computing average monthly income during the six calendar months before the bankruptcy petition filing date. Compare gross monthly average to the U.S. Census Bureau’s ‘median income’ for your state. If income is above the current median family income, then bankruptcy law requires completion of a “means test.” There’s a form for this, the B22A. The outcome determines eligibility for Chapter 7.


In addition to the means test and a bankruptcy petition, ten schedules, A through J are completed providing information about your property, debts, income and expenses.

If you are making payments on a car or other personal property, you have three choices:

  • Agree to continue payments as before after your bankruptcy is final, so you can keep the property. This is called reaffirmation.
  • Give the property back to the creditor and the discharge wipes out the debt. This is called a surrender.
  • Pay the value of the property to the creditor in a lump sum and keep the property. This is called a redemption.


In return for having your debts discharged, a bankruptcy trustee may sell any of your property that isn’t covered by exemptions. Failing to claim a valid exemption can result in sale by the bankruptcy trustee to pay back at least some of your debt.

Creditors Meeting

After filing, court clerks schedule what’s called the meeting of creditors. Sometimes called a “341 meeting”, this event is based in Section 341 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. The meeting is held outside of court, in a separate hearing room. A trustee assigned to your case runs the meeting. No judge is present. In most Chapter 7 cases, this is the only personal appearance the debtor has to make.

Bankruptcy basics summarized here can pose challenges. It is highly recommended that an experienced bankruptcy attorney be retained to guide filers through the procedural and legal complexities of bankruptcy. My office files consumer bankruptcy cases in Massachusetts and New Hampshire.

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Attorney Myers is a member of the American Trial Lawyers Association, Massachusetts Academy of Trial Lawyers, and New Hampshire Trial Lawyers Association. The Law Offices of Andrew D. Myers offer a broad range of legal services in personal injury cases in Massachusetts (MA) and New Hampshire (NH) areas.

The information on this web site is offered for informational purposes only. It is not offered as, and does not constitute, legal advice. Laws vary widely from state to state. You should rely only on the advice given to you during a personal consultation by a local attorney who is thoroughly familiar with state laws and the area of practice in which your concern lies. This web site must be labeled advertisement in some jurisdictions.